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The Ultimate Guide to Escrow Accounts for Private Placements

The Ultimate Guide to Escrow Accounts for Private Placements Diagram

So, you want to conduct a private placement? Whether Reg D, Reg A, Reg A+, Reg CF (Crowdfunding), or Reg S, offering a private placement escrow trust to hold investor funds prior may be required, but it is always a good idea.

Escrow accounts play a vital role in private placement offerings by securely holding investor funds until specific conditions are met, thus offering protection that boosts investor confidence. Opting for a “trust company” over a traditional bank account for escrow purposes introduces the advantage of active independent oversight and more FDIC insurance coverage (up to $150M per account), further enhancing the security and integrity of these escrow transactions.

Using an escrow agent, a neutral third party underscores the commitment to the prudent management of funds in private equity, Reg D, Reg A, Reg A+, Reg CF (Crowdfunding), Reg S offerings, and other private offerings. Another beneficial advantage is that the escrow account increases the confidence of both the offeror and the investor in the outcome. Thus, private placements safeguard investor assets and facilitate smooth transactions with regulatory and private placement offering terms.

Understanding Private Placement Escrow Accounts

Overview of Private Placement Escrow Accounts

Private placement escrow accounts are essential in managing the complexities of private securities transactions. These accounts hold funds raised from investors until the satisfaction of specific offering terms, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and safeguarding investor interests.

Steps in the Escrow Process

  1. Opening an Account: Selecting an escrow agent to establish an account is typically the first step, which can take one to two weeks. However, platforms like Eastern Point Trust Companies can take as little as one business day.
  2. Securing Financing: The escrow process also involves waiting for the investors’ transmittal of funds, either directly into the escrow or through a broker-dealer, which is critical to proceed with “breaking escrow.”
  3. Breaking Escrow: Once the terms of the offering have been satisfied, the offeror may request to “break escrow” and begin receiving funds. The escrow trustee will not allow escrow to be broken, and funds will not be available to the offeror until the private placement terms are fulfilled.

Regulatory Framework and Requirements

Private placements operate under the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, FINRA, and the associated securities statutes, regulations, and rules, which mandate using a private placement memorandum instead of a prospectus and may restrict marketing to the general public. Specifically, Reg D offerings are only open to accredited investors, adding another layer of complexity. However, Reg A/A+ and Reg CF offerings may be available to non-accredited investors - albeit with other restrictions.

Pro Tip: Always consult with competent legal counsel to safeguard compliance with all pertinent regulations and laws.

The Role of the Escrow Agent

A private placement escrow agent acts as an impartial third party, holding in custody the investor funds securely until all conditions of the private placement offering are met. This role is crucial in “all or nothing” contingency offerings, where the closing (breaking escrow) depends on reaching a stated aggregate amount of funding by a specified date. All funds must be returned to the investors if the minimum is unmet.

Importance of Escrow

Investor funds should be placed in escrow to minimize the risk of violating SEC Rules 10b-9 and 15c2-4.

Selecting the Right Escrow Agent

When choosing an escrow agent, factors such as speed and efficiency, expertise in regulatory compliance, and transparent fund administration should be considered. Thus, utilizing the right private placement escrow agent ensures that the escrow process complies with the statutory requirements of private placements and provides all parties involved the necessary peace of mind.

Advantages of Trust Companies Over Traditional Banks

Opting for a trust company for escrow services in private placements offers the advantage of enhanced independent oversight. Using a licensed fiduciary increases investor confidence and ensures a higher standard of compliance and security in managing substantial financial transactions involved in private equity and private offerings.

Regulatory Requirements for Private Placement Escrow Accounts

Regulatory Frameworks and Compliance

Broker-Dealer Obligations Under SEC and FINRA Rules

Broker-dealers are mandated under SEC Regulation Best Interest (Reg BI) and FINRA Rule 2111 (Suitability) to investigate the security when recommending it thoroughly. By doing so, the broker-dealers ensure they understand the risks and rewards associated with the private placement offerings and have a reasonable basis to believe that the recommendation is in the best interest of retail customers. Thus, the SEC’s Regulation Best Interest (Reg BI) extends to all recommendations to retail customers involving securities transactions or investment strategies, including Reg D, Reg A, Reg A+, Reg CF (Crowdfunding), or Reg S offerings private placement offerings.

Filing Requirements With FINRA

FINRA Rules 5122 and 5123 stipulate that member firms (broker-dealers) must file offering documents and information for private placement offerings they sell with FINRA’s Corporate Financing Department promptly.

Money in bank vault - ultimate guide to escrow

Escrow Handling in Contingency Offerings

Rule 15c2-4 Requirements

Rule 15c2-4 governs the handling of funds by broker-dealers during contingency offerings. It mandates that funds must either be placed in escrow with a bank or deposited in a segregated bank account, where the broker-dealer acts as trustee or agent. This rule protects investors by ensuring that offering proceeds are only transferred or under the offeror’s control upon fulfilling the required contingencies.

Selection of Private Placement Escrow Agents

When selecting a private placement escrow agent, choosing an impartial and independent agent with expertise in private placement escrow services is crucial. The escrow agent should use market-accepted agreements and terms and comply with Know Your Client (KYC), anti-money laundering (AML), taxation, and other legal requirements. By doing so, the escrow agent assists in safeguarding that the escrow process complies with all associated statutes and regulations.

Escrow agents in office setting

Choosing the Right Escrow Agent

Engaging an escrow agent early in the capital raise process is crucial for presenting a well-prepared pitch to potential investors. Proactively selecting your escrow agent while creating the investor presentation can assist in maximizing investor confidence and credibility.

Critical Factors in Choosing an Escrow Agent

  1. Speed and Efficiency: The chosen escrow agent should have a process for quickly setting up the escrow account. Focus on clearly stipulating the escrow conditions when producing the documents to ensure the timely release of funds once the conditions are satisfied.
  2. Expertise and Scope: It is essential to select an escrow agent with specific experience in subscription escrow services, private placement compliance, and a deep understanding of industry-specific regulations.
  3. Optimized Administration: Look for an escrow agent that offers real-time reporting, same-day disbursements, and the flexibility to adapt to changes in the program. These features indicate an optimized administration solution.
  4. Neutrality and Protection: A corporate escrow agent, being neutral, helps protect the legal rights of all parties involved. Engaging an experienced escrow agent from the onset is pivotal in securing the best outcomes for all parties.
  5. Experience and Compliance: When selecting an escrow agent, consider their experience, reputation, financial stability, and adherence to regulatory standards. The agent should have robust security measures to safeguard the funds and a process to maintain clear communications with all parties throughout the escrow process.


Selecting the right escrow agent is a pivotal decision in the private placement process. Speed, efficiency, expertise in regulatory compliance, and effective fund administration ensure the escrow process aligns with the applicable regulatory requirements of private placements. The culminating insight from this examination underscores the significance of escrow accounts in providing a secure, regulated structure that supports the intricate dynamics of private placements, fostering a trustful investment environment. This understanding points to further avenues for discussion and research, particularly in optimizing these financial instruments for future transactions and developments within the sector.

The advantages of using a licensed vendor (such as a trust company) over a traditional bank account are measurable. The provision of active independent oversight by a trust company adds a significant layer of security and integrity to these financial transactions, directly contributing to heightened investor confidence.

The crucial aspect of investor confidence is the linchpin in successfully offering private placements. Private Placement Escrow Accounts safeguard investor assets and streamline the “Breaking Escrow” transaction process under the applicable regulatory framework - thus ensuring all party’s satisfaction.

Additionally, you can open an account on platforms like Eastern Point Trust Company.

Disclosure: This content is an overview. It is not a detailed analysis and offers no legal or tax opinion on which you should solely rely. Always seek the advice of competent legal and tax advisors to review your specific facts and circumstances before making any decisions or relying on the content herein.
Any opinions, views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the content contained herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the Eastern Point Trust Company, its Affiliates, or their clients. The mere appearance of content does not constitute an endorsement by Eastern Point Trust Company (“EPTC”) or its Affiliates. The author’s opinions are based upon information they consider reliable, but neither EPTC nor its Affiliates, nor the company with which such author(s) are affiliated, warrant completeness, accuracy or disclosure of opposing interpretations.

EPTC and its Affiliates disclaim all liability to any party for any direct, indirect, implied, special, incidental, or other consequential damages arising directly or indirectly from any use of the content herein, which is expressly provided as is, without warranties.
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